Ithemba le-International Logistics 2022: ingabe ukuminyana kochungechunge lokuhlinzekwa kwempahla kanye namazinga aphezulu wempahla kuzoba yinto entsha evamile?

Kuyacaca ukuthi lolu bhubhane seluveze ubungozi bamaketanga omhlaba wonke - inkinga imboni yezokuthutha ezoqhubeka nokubhekana nayo kulo nyaka.Izinkampani ezithengisa izinto zidinga izinga eliphezulu lokuvumelana nezimo kanye nokubambisana eduze ukuze zizilungiselele ngokugcwele ukubhekana nale nkinga futhi nethemba lokubhekana nenkathi yangemva kwe-covid.

Onyakeni odlule, ukuphazamiseka kochungechunge lokuhlinzekwa kwempahla emhlabeni wonke, ukuminyana kwamachweba, ukushoda kwamandla, ukukhuphuka kwamazinga okuthutha olwandle kanye nezifo eziwumshayabhuqe eziqhubekayo kube nezinselele kubathumeli bemikhumbi, amachweba, abathwali nabahlinzeki bempahla.Uma sibheke ngabomvu ku-2022, ochwepheshe balinganisela ukuthi ingcindezi ochungechungeni lokuhlinzekwa kwempahla emhlabeni wonke izoqhubeka - ukusa ekupheleni komhubhe ngeke kubonakale kuze kube ingxenye yesibili yonyaka ekuqaleni.

Okubaluleke kakhulu, ukuvumelana emakethe yemikhumbi ukuthi ingcindezi izoqhubeka ngo-2022, futhi izinga lempahla mancane amathuba okuba libuyele ezingeni elingaphambi kwalolu bhubhane.Izinkinga zamandla echweba kanye nokuminyana kuzoqhubeka nokuhlanganiswa nesidingo esinamandla esivela embonini yezimpahla zabathengi emhlabeni wonke.

2AAX96P View from above, stunning aerial view of a cargo ship sailing with hundreds of colored containers direct to the port of Singapore.

U-Monika Schnitzer, isazi sezomnotho saseJalimane, ubikezela ukuthi okuhlukile kwamanje kwe-Omicron kuzoba nomthelela owengeziwe esikhathini sokuthutha emhlabeni wonke ezinyangeni ezizayo."Lokhu kungase kubhebhethekise izinkinga ezikhona zokulethwa," exwayisa."Ngenxa yokwahluka kwe-delta, isikhathi sokuthutha esisuka e-China siya e-United States sinyukile sisuka ezinsukwini ezingu-85 saya ezinsukwini ezingu-100, futhi singase sikhuphuke futhi. Njengoba isimo sisashubile, iYurophu nayo iyathinteka kulezi zinkinga."

Ngaso leso sikhathi, lolu bhubhane oluqhubekayo ludale isiphithiphithi ogwini olusentshonalanga ye-United States kanye namachweba amakhulu aseChina, okusho ukuthi amakhulu emikhumbi yamabhokisi alinde olwandle ukuze athole indawo yokulala.Ngasekuqaleni konyaka, iMaersk ixwayise amakhasimende ukuthi isikhathi sokulinda imikhumbi yamakhonteyna ukuthi yehlise noma ilande izimpahla echwebeni laseLong Beach ngaseLos Angeles siphakathi kwezinsuku ezingama-38 nezingu-45, kanti kulindeleke ukuthi “ukubambezeleka” kuqhubeke.

Uma sibheka eChina, kunokukhathazeka okukhulayo kokuthi impumelelo yakamuva ye-Omicron izoholela ekuvaleni okwengeziwe kwamachweba.Iziphathimandla zaseChina zivimbe okwesikhashana amachweba aseYantian naseNingbo ngonyaka odlule.Le mikhawulo iholele ekubambezelekeni kokuthi abashayeli bamaloli bathuthe amakhonteyna alayishiwe nangenalutho phakathi kwamafekthri namachweba, futhi ukuphazamiseka ekukhiqizeni nasekuthuthweni kuholele ekubambezelekeni kokuthunyelwa kwamanye amazwe kanye nokubuyiselwa kwamabhokisi angenalutho emafemini aphesheya.

E-Rotterdam, ichweba elikhulu kunawo wonke laseYurophu, ukuminyana kulindeleke ukuthi kuqhubeke phakathi no-2022. Nakuba umkhumbi ungalindi ngaphandle kwase-Rotterdam okwamanje, umthamo wokuwugcina ulinganiselwe futhi ukuxhuma endaweni engasentshonalanga ye-Europe akuhambisani kahle.

U-Emile hoogsteden, umqondisi wezohwebo we-Rotterdam Port Authority, uthe: "Silindele ukuthi ukuminyana okudlulele etheminali yase-Rotterdam kuqhubeke okwesikhashana ngo-2022.""Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi izimoto zamabhokisi omhlaba kanye nomthamo wokugcina akunyukanga ngenani elihambisana nesidingo."Noma kunjalo, ngoZibandlela wonyaka odlule, ichweba lamemezela ukuthi umthamo walo wokuthutha weqe amakhonteyina alinganayo amamitha angama-20 (TEU) okokuqala ngqa.

"Echwebeni laseHamburg, amatheminali ayo asebenza ngezindlela eziningi kanye nenqwaba asebenza ngokujwayelekile, kanti ama-container opharetha ahlinzeka ngo-24/7 ubusuku nemini," kusho u-Axel Mattn, oyi-CEO yenkampani yokumaketha yase-Hamburg Port."Ababambe iqhaza abakhulu echwebeni bazama ukuqeda izingqinamba nokubambezeleka ngokushesha okukhulu."

Imikhumbi ephuzile engakwazi ukuthintwa yi-Hamburg Port ngezinye izikhathi iholela ekuqongeleleni amabhokisi okuthekelisa ethekwini.Amatheminali, abathumeli bempahla kanye nezinkampani zemikhumbi ezithintekayo ziyawazi umthwalo wazo wokusebenza kahle futhi zisebenza ngaphakathi kobubanzi bezisombululo ezingaba khona.

T1ND5M Aerial top view container cargo ship working. Business import export logistic and transportation of International by ship in the open sea.

Ngaphandle kwengcindezi kubathumeli, unyaka ka-2021 unyaka onempumelelo ezinkampanini zokuthutha amabhokisi.Ngokwesibikezelo se-alphaliner, umhlinzeki wolwazi ngemikhumbi, izinkampani ezihamba phambili ezi-10 ezisohlwini lokuthumela amabhokisi kulindeleke ukuthi zithole inzuzo erekhodiwe ye-US $ 115 billion kuya ku-US $ 120 billion ngo-2021. Lokhu kuyisimangaliso esimnandi futhi kungashintsha isakhiwo semboni, ngoba lezi zinzuzo zingatshalwa kabusha, kusho abahlaziyi be-alphaliner ngenyanga edlule.

Imboni iphinde yazuza ekululameni okusheshayo kokukhiqizwa e-Asia kanye nesidingo esinamandla eYurophu nase-United States.Ngenxa yokushoda kweziqukathi, imithwalo yasolwandle icishe yaphindeka kabili ngonyaka odlule, futhi izibikezelo zangaphambili ziphakamisa ukuthi impahla ingase ifinyelele izinga eliphezulu ngo-2022.

Abahlaziyi bedatha be-Xeneta babika ukuthi izinkontileka zokuqala ngo-2022 zibonisa izinga eliphezulu lerekhodi esikhathini esizayo."Kuzophela nini?"Kubuza uPatrick Berglund, oyi-CEO ye-xeneta.

"Abathumeli abafuna usizo lwempahla oludingeka kakhulu baye bahlushwa omunye umzuliswano onzima wezindleko eziphansi. Isivunguvungu esiqhubekayo sokufunwa okuphezulu, ukugcwala ngokweqile, ukuminyana kwechweba, ukushintsha imikhuba yabathengi kanye nokuphazamiseka okuvamile kwamaketango okulethwa kwempahla kushayela izinga. ukuqhuma, okuyinto, ngokungananazi, esingakaze sikubone ngaphambili."

Izinga lezinkampani ezihamba phambili emhlabeni zokuthutha amabhokisi nalo selishintshile.I-Alphaliner ibike ngezibalo zayo zomhlaba wonke zemikhumbi yemikhumbi ngoJanuwari ukuthi I-Mediterranean Shipping Company (MSc) isidlule i-Maersk ukuze ibe inkampani enkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni yokuthumela amabhokisi.

I-MSc manje isebenzisa uxhaxha lwemikhumbi engama-container engu-645 enenani eliphelele lama-TEU angu-4284728, kuyilapho i-Maersk inezi-TEU ezingu-4282840 (736), futhi ingene esikhundleni esihamba phambili cishe ngo-2000. Zombili izinkampani zinesabelo semakethe yomhlaba wonke esingu-17%.

I-CMA CGM yaseFrance, enamandla okuthutha angu-3166621 TEU, iphinde yathola indawo yesithathu kuCOSCO Group (2932779 TEU), osekuyindawo yesine, ilandelwa nguHerbert Roth (1745032 TEU).Kodwa-ke, ku-s Ren Skou, i-CEO ye-Maersk, ukulahlekelwa isikhundla esiphezulu akubonakali kuyinkinga enkulu.

Esitatimendeni esikhishwe ngonyaka odlule, uSkou uthe, "inhloso yethu akukona ukuba phambili. Inhloso yethu ukwenza umsebenzi omuhle kumakhasimende ethu, sinikeze izinzuzo ezinothile, futhi okubaluleke kakhulu, sibe inkampani ehloniphekile. Ababambe iqhaza ekwenzeni ibhizinisi. neMaersk."Ubuye waveza ukuthi inkampani ibheka ukubaluleka okukhulu ekwandiseni umthamo wayo wezokuthutha ngenzuzo enkulu.

Ukuze kufezwe lo mgomo, i-Mars yamemezela ukutholwa kwe-LF Logistics ekomkhulu layo e-Hong Kong ngoDisemba ukuze kwandiswe umthamo wayo wokuhlanganisa kanye nekhono lokuthutha esifundeni sase-Asia Pacific.Isivumelwano semali eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingu-3.6 singenye yezinto ezinkulu kakhulu emlandweni wale nkampani.

Kule nyanga, i-PSA International Pte Ltd (PSA) yaseSingapore imemezele esinye isivumelwano esikhulu.I-Port group isayine isivumelwano sokuthola u-100% wamasheya agcinwe ngasese e-BDP international, Inc. (BDP) eqenjini le-Greenbriar equity, LP (Greenbriar), inkampani ezimele yezabelomali ekomkhulu eNew York.

Indlunkulu yayo e-Philadelphia, i-BDP ingumhlinzeki womhlaba wonke wochungechunge oludidiyelwe lokuhlinzekwa kwempahla, ezokuthutha kanye nezixazululo.Njengoba inamahhovisi ayi-133 emhlabeni wonke, igxile kakhulu ekuphatheni amaketanga okuhlinzeka ayinkimbinkimbi kakhulu kanye nezinhlelo ezigxile kakhulu nezisombululo zokubonakala ezintsha.

U-Tan Chong Meng, oyi-CEO ye-PSA International Group, uthe: "I-BDP izoba eyokuqala enkulu yokuthengwa kwe-PSA yalolu hlobo - umhlinzeki we-supply chain ohlangene emhlabeni wonke kanye nomhlinzeki wezixazululo zezokuthutha onamandla okugcina kuze kube sekugcineni. Izinzuzo zayo zizohambisana futhi zandise ikhono le-PSA. ukuhlinzeka ngezixazululo eziguquguqukayo, eziguquguqukayo nezintsha. Amakhasimende azozuza emakhonweni abanzi e-BDP kanye ne-PSA ngenkathi esheshisa uguquko lwawo ochungechungeni lokuhlinzeka ngokuqhubekayo."Umsebenzi usadinga ukugunyazwa okusemthethweni kweziphathimandla ezifanele kanye nezinye izimo zokuvala ezivamile.

Iketango eliqinile lokuhlinzekwa kwempahla ngemuva kwalolu bhubhane liye lathinta kakhulu ukukhula kwezokuthutha ngendiza.

Ngokwedatha yemakethe yezimpahla zomoya emhlabeni wonke ekhishwe yi-International Air Transport Association (IATA), ukukhula kwehle ngoNovemba 2021.

Nakuba izimo zomnotho zisavuma embonini, ukuphazamiseka kwe-supply chain kanye nezingqinamba zamandla kuthinte isidingo.Njengoba umthelela walolu bhubhane uhlanekezela ukuqhathanisa phakathi kwemiphumela yanyanga zonke yango-2021 nango-2020, ukuqhathanisa kwenziwa ngoNovemba 2019, okulandela iphethini evamile yokufunwa.

Ngokwedatha ye-IATA, isidingo somhlaba wonke esilinganiswa ngamathani amakhilomitha ezimpahla (ctks) sikhuphuke ngo-3.7% uma siqhathaniswa noNovemba 2019 (4.2% webhizinisi lamazwe ngamazwe).Lokhu kuphansi kakhulu kunokukhula okungu-8.2% ngo-Okthoba 2021 (2% kwezamabhizinisi omhlaba) nasezinyangeni ezedlule.

Nakuba izimo zomnotho zisaqhubeka nokusekela ukukhula kwezimpahla zomoya, ukuphazamiseka kokuthengwa kwempahla kunciphisa ukukhula ngenxa yokushoda kwezisebenzi, ngokwengxenye ngenxa yokuhlukaniswa kwabasebenzi, ukuntuleka kwendawo yokugcina impahla kwezinye izikhumulo zezindiza kanye nokwanda kokusalela emuva kokucubungula ekupheleni konyaka.

Isiminyaminya sibikwe ezikhumulweni zezindiza ezinkulu eziningana, okuhlanganisa i-Kennedy International Airport yaseNew York, eLos Angeles kanye nase-Amsterdam's Schiphol Airport.Kodwa-ke, ukuthengiswa kwezitolo e-United States nase-China kuhlala kuqinile.E-United States, ukuthengiswa kwezitolo kuphakeme ngo-23.5% kunezinga ngoNovemba 2019, kuyilapho e-China, ukuthengiswa kwe-inthanethi okuphindwe kabili okungu-11 kuphakeme ngo-60.8% kunezinga ngo-2019.

ENyakatho Melika, ukukhula kwezimpahla zomoya kuyaqhubeka nokuqhutshwa isidingo esinamandla.Uma kuqhathaniswa noNovemba 2019, umthamo wezimpahla zamazwe ngamazwe wezinkampani zezindiza zezwe ukhuphuke ngo-11.4% ngoNovemba 2021. Lokhu kube ngaphansi kakhulu kunokusebenza ngo-Okthoba (20.3%).Ukuminyana kochungechunge lokuhlinzekwa kwempahla ezindaweni eziningana ezinkulu zezimpahla e-United States kuthinte ukukhula.Amandla okuthutha amazwe ngamazwe ehle ngo-0.1% uma kuqhathaniswa noNovemba 2019.

Uma kuqhathaniswa nenyanga efanayo ngo-2019, umthamo wezimpahla zamazwe ngamazwe wezindiza zaseYurophu ngoNovemba 2021 ukhuphuke ngo-0.3%, kodwa lokhu kwehle kakhulu uma kuqhathaniswa no-7.1% ngo-Okthoba 2021.

Izinkampani zezindiza zaseYurophu zithintwa ukuminyana kokuthengwa kwempahla kanye nezithiyo zasendaweni zamandla.Uma kuqhathaniswa nezinga langaphambi kwenhlekelele, umthamo wezokuthutha wamazwe ngamazwe ngoNovemba 2021 ehle ngo-9.9%, futhi umthamo wokuthutha wemizila emikhulu yase-Eurasia ehle ngo-7.3% ngesikhathi esifanayo.

NgoNovemba 2021, umthamo wezimpahla zomoya wamazwe ngamazwe we-Asia Pacific Airlines ukhuphuke ngo-5.2% uma kuqhathaniswa nenyanga efanayo ngo-2019, ngaphansi kancane kuphela kunokwenyuka ngo-5.9% ngenyanga edlule.Umthamo wezokuthutha wamazwe ngamazwe wesifunda wehle kancane ngoNovemba, wehla ngo-9.5% uma uqhathaniswa nowezi-2019.

Aerial top view container cargo ship, Business import export logistic and transportation of International by container cargo ship in the open sea.

Kuyacaca ukuthi lolu bhubhane seluveze ubungozi bochungechunge lokuhlinzekwa kwempahla emhlabeni wonke - inkinga imboni yezokuthutha ezoqhubeka nokubhekana nayo kulo nyaka.Izinga eliphezulu lokuvumelana nezimo kanye nokubambisana okuseduze phakathi kwazo zonke izinhlangothi echungechungeni lokuhlinzekwa kwempahla liyadingeka ukuze kulungiselelwe ngokugcwele le nkinga kanye nethemba lokubhekana nenkathi yangemva kobhubhane.

Ukutshalwa kwezimali kwingqalasizinda yezokuthutha, njengokutshalwa kwezimali kwenani elikhulu e-United States, kungasiza ukuthuthukisa ukusebenza kahle kwamachweba nezikhumulo zezindiza, kuyilapho ukufakwa kwedijithali nokuzenzakalela kubalulekile ukuze kuqhutshekwe nokuthuthukiswa kwezinqubo zezokuthutha.Nokho, okungenakulibaleka yisici somuntu.Ukushoda kwezisebenzi - hhayi nje abashayeli bamaloli - kukhombisa ukuthi kusadingeka imizamo yokugcina uchungechunge lokuhlinzekwa kwezimpahla.

Ukuhlela kabusha i-supply chain ukuze ikwazi ukusimama kungenye inselele.

Imboni yezokuthutha isenomsebenzi omningi okufanele wenziwe, okungangabazeki okufakazela ikhono layo lokuhlinzeka ngezixazululo eziguquguqukayo nezinobuciko.

Umthombo: Logistics management


Isikhathi sokuthumela: Mar-31-2022